mineral


Arkansas Critical Mineral Fact Sheet

Aluminum (Al) - Bauxite was mined from 1898-1990 for aluminum in Saline and Pulaski Counties. The primary aluminum-bearing minerals are gibbsite and boehmite. The highest yearly production of over 6 million tons was during 1943 from blanket and sheet deposits. See the Figure 1 below for more production information. Bauxite production in Arkansas from 1899 to 1981

Figure 1. Bauxite production in Arkansas from 1899 to 1981. Data not available after 1981.
Curve smothed by using a 5-year moving avarage.1

The majority of mining was by surface techniques, but during the WW II there was also underground production. By-products include Gallium (Ga) and Titanium (Ti) and Niobium (Nb). Gallium was produced starting in 1947 and ended in 1983. The average Ga content is 0.0086% or 2.75 oz/ton. The titanium-bearing minerals have not been prospected for during the bauxite producing years. Niobium (Nb) is associated with the titanium bearing-minerals occurring in the bauxite. The US Bureau of Mines resource estimate in 1954 was 150 million pounds of Nb metal from mine waste fines and the bauxite deposits. In Pulaski and Saline Counties 33 bauxite mine sites are listed as reclaimed or abandon. Deposit location centers in Pulaski Co are 34.69735N/-92.246016W and 34.664044N/-92.316740W and in Saline Co 34.567413N/-92.482908W which covers about 275 sq. miles. Pulaski County sites are within the Little Rock Metropolitan area. Presently, deposits in Saline County are mined intermittently for aluminum oxide for the proppant industry. For more detailed information check refs: Bramlett, M.N., 1936, Geology of the Arkansas bauxite region: Arkansas Geological Survey Information Circular 8, 68p.; Gordon, Mackenzie, Jr., Tracey, J.I., and Ellis, M.W., 1958, Geology of the Arkansas bauxite region: US Geological Survey Professional Paper 299, 268p.; and US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations, Malamphy, M.C., et al, 1948.
References

  1. Howard, J.M., Colton, G.W., and Prior, W.L., eds., 1997, Mineral, fossil-fuel, and water resources of Arkansas: Arkansas Geological Commission Bulletin 24

Antimony (Sb) - Stibnite and stibiconite mined from 1873-1947 in Sevier County. Ore occurs in hydrothermal quartz veins in association with Cu, Fe, Zn and bismuth. Potential resource estimated by the US Bureau of Mines, 5000 tons of concentrates, production through 1947 was 5390 tons of concentrates. There are 27 abandon mines and prospect sites reported, one of which has a shaft. The resource area would be mineable but the low reserve figures and scattered ore bodies would be problematic for an economic venture. Sb is also associated with cinnabar deposits in Howard and Clark Counties. Land use; forest, State Park and Conservation Area. The bounding coordinates of the mineralized area are 34.134602N/-94.377101W to 34.191418N/-94.190333W. For more detailed information about individual mines and prospects see; Howard, J.M., 1979 Antimony District of Southwest Arkansas, Arkansas Geological Commission Information Circular 24, 29p. Additional refs: Hall, R.B., 1940, Stibnite deposits of Sevier County, Arkansas: Evanston, Ill. Northwestern University, MS thesis, 102p; Hess, F.L., 1908, The Arkansas antimony district of southwest Arkansas: US Geological Survey Bulletin 340-D, p. 241-252; Pittenger, G.C., 1974, Geochemistry, geothermometry and mineralogy of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Sb deposits, Sevier County, Arkansas: Fayetteville, University of Arkansas MS thesis, 75p.; and Stearn, N.H., 1935, Stibnite in quartz, American Mineralogist, v. 20, no. 1, p. 59-62.
Cobalt (Co) - Cobalt is associated with manganese-bearing sites in the Ouachita Mountain region, Polk and Montgomery Counties. In 1983 analysis of 140 samples by the US Bureau of Mines range from 0.05 to 1.2% Co, combined with copper, lithium, and nickel in 40% of the deposit samples. Cobalt is concentrated in lithophorite. Resource estimates range from 1 million to 6.4 million tons. Refs. O'Connor W.K., White, J.C., and Turner, P.C., 1992, Geology and mineral processing of manganese deposits from the west-central Arkansas district: Mining Engineering, v. 44, p 1361-1368; and O'Connor W.K., White, J.C., and Turner, P.C., 1992, Carbothermic reduction and leaching of manganese ores from the west-central Arkansas district, in J.P. Hager, ed., Process Mineralogy, EPD Congress, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, p 379-396.
Gallium (Ga) - Gallium is a by-product of bauxite mining. It was produced from 1947 to 1983. The average Ga content of the bauxite was 0.0086% or 2.75 oz/ton. Refs: Goldschmidt, V.M., 1937, The principles of distribution of chemical elements in minerals and rocks: Chemical Society of London Journal, pt. 1, p. 655-673; Gordon, Mackenzie, Jr., and Murata, K.J., 1952, Minor elements in Arkansas bauxite: Economic Geology, V. 47, p. 169-179; and Gordon, Mackenzie, Jr., Tracey, J.I., and Ellis, M.W., 1958, Geology of the Arkansas bauxite region: US Geological Survey Professional Paper 299, 268p.
Lithium (Li) - Lithium occurs in the state in two provinces. In the Gulf Coastal Plain it occurs in oil-field brines produced from the Smackover Formation, Jurassic age, in south Arkansas. The resource area in south Arkansas includes Union, Columbia, Miller, Lafayette and Ouachita Counties. The second region where lithium occurs is in the Ouachita Mountains. Occurrences here include hydrothermal quartz veins and at the Magnet Cove igneous complex where lithium is associated with the alkaline igneous rocks and quartz veins found there. Lithium occurring in quartz veins has been noted in Polk, Montgomery, Garland, Perry, Saline, Hot Spring and Pulaski Counties. The primary lithium mineral occurring in the quartz veins are cookeite, taeniolite and lithophorite. At the present time, the occurrences in quartz veins are not concentrated enough to be deemed economic. Very little exploration has taken place for lithium in this province outside the Magnet Cove area. The occurrence in the Gulf Coastal Plain is under production presently. One company has a working plant which has a rated production of 20 tons of lithium carbonate/year and one company is building a pilot plant to test extraction techniques. When this unit comes on line, production is expected to be a similar 20 tons/year of lithium carbonate. These brines from the Smackover Formation contain up to 445 parts per million of lithium. The US Geological Survey estimates there is 500 million tons of lithium in the brines of south Arkansas. Ref: Collins, A.G., 1974, Geochemistry of liquids, gases, and rocks from the Smackover Formation: U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 7897, 84p.; Miser, H.D., and Stevens, R.E., 1938, Taeiolite from Manget Cove, Arkansas: American Mineralogist, v. 23, no. 2, p. 104-110; and Stone, C.G., and Milton, Charles, 1976, Lithium mineralization in Arkansas, in Vine, J.D., ed., Lithium resources and requirements by the Year 2000: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1005, p. 137-142.
Manganese (Mn) - Manganese occurs in two physiographic provinces in the state, the Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains. The majority of mining effort was centered in the Ozarks in the Batesville District, an area of about 100 sq. miles in northern Independence County, southern Izard County and southeastern Stone Counties. About 98% of the manganese mined in the state came from this area. In the Ouachita's occurrences have been noted in Pulaski, Saline, Hot Spring, Garland, Pike, Montgomery and Polk Counties, although mining was confined to Polk and Montgomery Counties. The Batesville District ore deposits are classified into 4 main types: manganiferous limestone, in situ clay, clay-talus residual and placer and they occur mostly in the Upper Ordovician Fernvale and Cason Formations. The Batesville District deposits were worked starting in 1847 and stopped in 1959. During 1956 more than 29,000 tons of manganese ore was extracted. The US Bureau of Mines resource figures for this district are 200 million tons at 4 to 9 % manganese in the ground. In the Ouachita Mountain region the Arkansas Novaculite, Devonian - Early Mississippian, and Stanley Formation, Mississippian, host Mn-oxides in veins and breccia associated with fracture zones which can be from a fraction of an inch to more than 10 feet in width. These deposits are phosphate-free and were blended with ore from the Batesville District which is phosphate-rich. Production was recorded in the early 20th century from surface and subsurface mines in the Ouachita's. Cobalt would be a byproduct of manganese production in the Ouachita Mountains. All mining of manganese stopped when the federal stock pile program ended in 1959. Refs: Miser, H.D., 1922, Manganese deposits of the Caddo Gap and De Queen Quadrangles, Arkansas: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 660-C, p. 59-122; and Stroud, R.B., et al, 1981, Manganese resources of the Batesville District, Arkansas: Arkansas Geological Commission Information Circular 27, 146p. The Batesville District is part of the EMRI Phase One mapping program searching for rare earth elements in the upper Ordovician to lower Mississippian units which may be associated with the manganese deposits.
Niobium (Nb) - see also columbium. Arkansas has three areas of mineralization: Magnet Cove in Hot Spring County, Potash Sulphur Springs in Garland County, and the bauxite deposits in Saline and Pulaski Counties. At Magnet Cove and Potash Sulphur Springs, Nb is associated with the alkaline igneous intrusions and contact metamorphism zone. In Pulaski and Saline Counties it is associated with the titanium-bearing minerals in bauxite deposits. In the Magnet Cove area, there are substantial deposits of titanium minerals, rutile (TiO2), brookite (TiO2), and perovskite (CaTiO3). Crystals of the rutile and brookite average 2% and maximum of 5% niobium. Perovskite may contain up to 9% niobium. The US Bureau of Mines estimate 12 million pounds of niobium contained in the rutile-brookite deposits at Magnet Cove. The niobium at Potash Sulphur Springs is present in the mineral pyrochlore ((Ca, Na)2Nb2O6(OH,F)). Soil samples from this site contain up to 0.9% niobium. Arkansas bauxite is reported to contain niobium values from 0.02 to 0.1% and average 0.05%. In 1954 the US Bureau of Mines estimated that the bauxite deposits and waste fines contained up to 150 million pounds of niobium metal. Niobium could be recovered as a by-product. Refs: Erickson, R.L., and Blade, L.V., 1963, Geochemistry and petrology of the alkali igneous complex at Magnet Cove, Arkansas: US Geological Survey Professional Paper 425, 99p.; Fryklund, V.C. Jr., Harner, R.S., and Kaiser, E.P., 1954, Niobium (columbium) and titanium at Magnet Cove and Potash Sulphur Springs, Arkansas: US Geological Survey Bulletin 1015-B, p. 23-57; Gordon, Mackenzie, Jr., and Murat, K.J., 1952, Minor elements in Arkansas bauxite: Economic Geology, v. 47, no.2, p. 169-179; and Neiberlein, V.A., Fine, M.M., Calhoun, W.A., and Parsons, E.W., 1954, Progress report on development of columbium in Arkansas for 1953: US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 5064, 23p.
Rare Earth Metals - This is a group of elements consisting of scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanum group elements. They are known to occur in three areas of the state and two different rocks types. RRE's associated with igneous rocks occur at Magnet Cove igneous complex in Hot Spring County and igneous intrusions in Pulaski, Saline, Cleveland and Garland Counties. Samples analyzed from auger drilling in the central region of Magnet Cove show up to 4.3% combined rare earths. Selected samples of bastnaesite collected by the Arkansas Geological Commission contained over 30% combined lanthanides. The mineralization is present in veins up to 4 inches thick in carbonatite. Sedimentary deposits where RRE's occur are in the Batesville District (Stone, Izard and Independence Counties) and are associated with phosphorite occurring in the Cason Shale, Upper Ordovician – Lower Silurian. The phosphorite has an average REE content of 1692.2 ppm. Samples from this investigation indicate larger amounts of the light rare earths and lesser amounts of the heavy rare earths. Refs: Grosz, A.E., Meier, A.L., and Clardy, B.F., edited by Howard, J.M., 1995, Rare Earth Elements in the Cason Shale of northern Arkansas: A Geochemical Reconnaissance, 13p.; Barwood, H.L., and Howard J.M., 1990, Rare earth fluorcarbonates at Magnet Cove, Hot Springs County, Arkansas (abs): Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v.22, no.1, 2 p.; and Erickson, R.L., and Blade, L.V., 1963, Geochemistry and petrology of the alkali igneous complex at Magnet Cove, Arkansas: US Geological Survey Professional Paper 425, 99p.
We also have information on phosphate deposits occurring in Searcy and Van Buren Counties. These investigations involved core drilling and analyses for phosphate content. Stratigraphic logs and gamma ray logs were performed for each drill hole where possible. Mining of phosphate-rich rock in Van Buren County took place following these investigations for a short time in 1963. Only a few thousand tons of material was mined during this time. No mining has taken place on the phosphate deposit in Searcy County. References are: Phase I: Core-drilling project – Peyton Creek Phosphate Area, Searcy-Van Buren Counties, Arkansas, 1964, by Arkansas Geological Commission, Miscellaneous Publication 9, 39p., 1 fig., 25 logs; and Phase II: Core-drilling project – Peyton Creek Phosphate Area, Searcy-Van Buren Counties, Arkansas, 1965, by Arkansas Geological Commission, Miscellaneous Publication 10, 34p., 2 figs., 22 logs.
Strontium (Sr) - Strontium occurs in Howard and Pike Counties. The strontium-bearing minerals are celestine (SrSO4) containing 56.4% strontium oxide and strontianite (SrCO3) containing 70.1 strontium oxide. The only mineral with commercial potential is celestine which was derived from sea water (evaporates) occurring in the De Queen Limestone member of the Trinity Group, Lower Cretaceous. Two intervals occur about 25 to 35 feet above the base of the De Queen, one appears to be in lenses and the other a bed 2 to 6 inches thick in an area of about 3 square miles. The first report of celestine in the state was by the US Geological Survey in 1929. In 1941, 1500 pounds of celestine was collected by the W.F. Hintze Company. During 1942 and 1943, a prospecting and exploration project was conducted. Test pits and 750 test holes were drilled over a 30 square mile area in Howard County. Afterwards, 90 tons were mined by open-pit methods and sent to Nacagdoches, TX for processing. Since then, no further mining has taken place in the state. The best exposure of celestine is located at the Certain Teed gypsum mine in Howard County. Strontium could be a by-product of the gypsum mining as it is found in overburden above the gypsum ore beds. Refs: Hanson, W.D., and McElwaine, R.B., 1999, Celestine (Celestite) in southwest Arkansas, in Proceedings of the 34th Forum on the Geology of Industrial Minerals, 1998, edited by Johnson, K.S., Oklahoma Geological Survey Circular 102, p. 105-110; Dane, C.H., 1929, Upper Cretaceous formations of southwestern Arkansas: Arkansas Geological Survey Bulletin 1, 215p.; and Miser, H.D., and Purdue, A.H., 1929, Geology of the De Queen and Caddo Gap quadrangles, Arkansas: US Geological Survey Bulletin 808, 195p.
Tantalum (Ta) - Because tantalum is associated with niobium the resource potential exist in Arkansas. To date, no tantalum has been recovered in the state. See the niobium and titanium sections for more information.
Thorium (Th) - Thorium minerals are generally radioactive. During the 1950's exploration for radioactive elements discovered anomalies in the Magnet Cove area in Hot Springs County and in Saline County. In Saline County thorium and uranium are present in a quartz-feldspar rock. A selected sample analyzed 0.019% uranium and 1.5% thorium. There has been no mining of thorium or uranium in the state. Ref: Erickson, R.L., and Blade, L.V., 1963, Geochemistry and petrology of the alkali igneous complex at Magnet Cove, Arkansas: US Geological Survey Professional Paper 425, 99p.
Titanium (Ti) - Titanium is present in the minerals anatase, brookite, rutile (all TiO2), leucoxene (titanium oxides), ilmenite (FeTiO3), perovskite (CaTiO3) and titanite (CaTiSiO5). The most important ore minerals in Arkansas are rutile, brookite, and ilmenite. They are present in Pulaski, Saline, Hot Spring, Garland, Pike, Howard, Sevier, and Little River Counties. They are also present in alluvial sands on the Arkansas and White Rivers. In Pulaski and Saline Counties the Ti-bearing minerals are associated with the igneous intrusive nepheline syenite and subsequent bauxite deposits. Rutile, brookite, and perovskite are present at Magnet Cove in Hot Spring County in two types of deposits: feldspar-carbonate-rutile veins in igneous rocks of the intrusion and from brookite-quartz veins in altered Arkansas Novaculite contact zone adjacent to the intrusion rim. Perovskite is associated with late stage carbonate-rich bodies piercing the interior of the Magnet Cove intrusion. Rutile was mined from open pits in Magnet Cove from 1932–1944. About 5,400 tons of concentrate were recovered. US Bureau of Mines investigations show 8 million tons of Ti-bearing material containing 4 to 8% TiO2 in the Magnet Cove area. Development of this resource was halted by the presence of Niobium. In Garland County titanium values were noted during the mining of vanadium ore at Potash Sulphur Springs but were not recovered. South of Magnet Cove high-level terrace placer deposits above the Ouachita River were mined from open-pits during the 1930's. Grain sizes range from medium-sand to gravel. In Pike, Howard, Sevier, and Little River Counties ilmenite is present in the upper parts of the Cretaceous Tokio Formation which outcrops from near Arkadelphia, Clark County westward to the AR/OK state line north of Arkinda, Little River County. A deposit near Mineral Springs, Howard County was surface mined producing only a small amount of ilmenite. Investigations done by the AGC in this area demonstrated about 110,000 tons of Ti-bearing minerals within 50 feet of the surface. During 1939-1940, 12.8 tons of ilmenite was processed from sands along the Arkansas River in Yell County. More recently, Ti-bearing sands were separated from an industrial sand operation along the White River in Independence County. No production values of the Ti-bearing minerals are available for this site. Presently no Ti-bearing minerals are mined in the state. Refs: Calhoun, W.A., 1950, Titanium and iron minerals from black sands in bauxite: US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 4621, 15p.; Fryklund, V.C., Jr., Harner, R.S., and Kasier, E.P., 1954, Niobium (columbium) and titanium at Magnet Cove and Potash Sulphur Springs, Arkansas, US Geological Survey Bulletin 1015-B, p. 23-57; Fryklund, V.C., Jr., and Holbrook, D.F., 1950, Titanium ore deposits of Hot Spring County, Arkansas: Arkansas Resource and Development Commission, Division of Geology Bulletin 16, 173p.; Hanson, W.D., 1997, Heavy-mineral sands of the Tokio Formation in southwest Arkansas: Arkansas Geological Commission Information Circular 33, 39p.; Holbrook, D.F., 1947, A brookite deposit in Hot Spring County, Arkansas: Arkansas Resource and Development Commission, Division of Geology Bulletin 11, 21p.; and Holbrook, D.F., 1948, Titanium in southern Howard County, Arkansas: Arkansas Resource and Development Commission, Division of Geology Bulletin 13, 16p. The Arkansas Geological Survey was recently given 5.53 acres in Magnet Cove. This property was at one time the Titanium Corp of America open-pit mine site, 34.468330N/-92.867952W.
Uranium (U) - In the 1950's uranium anomalies were discovered in Marion, Garland and Pike Counties. Several locations yielded samples containing 0.1% or more uranium oxide. At Potash Sulphur Springs, Garland County, uranium was discovered to be associated with the igneous intrusion. The uranium mineralization is at the contact of the Cretaceous syenite complex with folded Paleozoic novaculite and shale beds. The USGS identified the primary mineral to be pyrochlore ((Ca,Na)2Nb2O6(OH,F)). Soil samples assayed up to 0.4% uranium from this site by the Atomic Energy Commission. The Rankin prospect in Pike County consists of radioactive carbonized wood fragments in the lower Cretaceous Trinity Group. The highest assay obtained was 0.24% uranium oxide. The Bear Hill prospect in Marion County has the highest assayed uranium oxide content of 2% from Paleozoic black shales. No economically viable deposits have been discovered and there has been no mining in the state for radioactive ore. Refs: Erickson, R.L., and Blade, L.V., 1963, Geochemistry and petrology of the alkali igneous complex at Magnet Cove, Arkansas: US Geological Survey Professional Paper 425, 99p.; Stroud, R.B., 1951, The areal distribution of radioactivity in the Potash Sulfur Springs complex: Fayetteville, University of Arkansas, MS thesis, 42p.; and Swanson, V.E., and Landis, E.R., 1962, Geology of a uranium-bearing black shale of Late Devonian age in north-central Arkansas: Arkansas Geological and Conservation Commission Information Circular 22, 16p.
Vanadium (V) - In the 1950 while searching for radioactive minerals Vanadium was discovered to be in economic quantities at Potash Sulphur Spring igneous complex in Garland County and Magnet Cove igneous complex in Hot Spring County. In 1962 Union Carbide delineated several ore-grade deposits in highly altered Paleozoic rocks and from the contact metamorphic zone around this complex. The Christy deposit at the adjacent Magnet Cove igneous complex also has ore-grade material occurring in recrystallized and altered Arkansas Novaculite. The principal ore minerals are vanadiferous goethite with some minor amounts of vanadium-bearing brookite. Since mining for vanadium started approximately 4.8 million tons of 1.2% V2O5 has been processed from Arkansas ore. Mining was done by open-pit methods. The last production of V2O5 was in 1990. The T deposit and the Spaulding deposit at Potash Sulphur Springs contain ore grade rock that has not been mined to date. Minerals associated with the vanadium are titanium, niobium, with lesser amounts of tantalum, uranium, complex rare earth oxides and fluorine. Additionally, a sample from one drill hole in Montgomery County indicated the presence of vanadium. Reclamation work is nearly complete at Potash Sulphur Springs and the near-by processing facility is recovering vanadium from waste material from the Venezuelan oil fields. Refs: Howard, J. Michael, et. al., 1997, Mineral, Fossil Fuel, and Water Resources in Arkansas, Arkansas Geologic Survey, Bulletin 24, 118 p.; Stroud, Raymond B., et. al, 1969, Mineral Resources in Arkansas, US Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines Bulletin 645, 418 p. Evans. H.T., Jr., Nord, Gordon, Marinenko, John, and Milton, Charles, 1984, Straczekite, a new calcium barium potassium vanadate mineral from Wilson Springs, Arkansas: Mineralogical Magazine, v. 48, p. 289-293.; Flohr, M.J.K., 1994, Titanium, vanadium, and niobium mineralization and alkali metasomatism from the Magnet Cove complex, Arkansas: Economic Geology, v. 89, p. 105-130.; Hollingsworth, J.S., 1974, Geology of the Wilson Springs vanadium deposits, in Arkansas – Texas economic geology field trip: Arkansas Geological Commission Guidebook 74-1, p. 10-16.; Howard, J.M., and Owens, D.R., 1995, Minerals of the Wilson Springs vanadium mines, Potash Sulphur Springs, Arkansas: Rock & Minerals, v. 70, p. 154-170.; and Taylor, I.R., 1969, Union Carbide's twin-pit vanadium venture at Wilson Springs: Mining Engineering, V. 21, p. 82-85; Breit, G.N, 1992, Mineralogical and chemical composition of samples from the Christy vanadium-titanium deposit, Hot Spring County, Arkansas: U.S. Geological Survey Open-file report 92-288, 43 p.; Arkansas Geological Survey, [2020], vanadium: Arkansas Geological Survey web page, accessed April 30, 2020
Barite (BaSO4) - Barite occurs in the Ouachita Mountain region, specifically in Hot Spring, Montgomery, and Polk Counties and near Dierks in Howard County in the Gulf Coastal Plain province. Barite was first discovered in Montgomery County in 1888, and near Magnet Cove in Hot Spring County in 1900. It was mined beginning in 1939. During 1944-1966 the Chamberlain Creek deposit at Magnet Cove was the Nations' leading producer. In the 1970-1980's barite was mined from the Fancy Hill district in Montgomery County. Other mines active at this time were near Pigeon Roost Mountain, northeast of Glenwood, and east of Dierks, Howard County. Most of the deposits occur in the Mississippian Stanley Formation with minor occurrences in the Arkansas Novaculite. In the Dierks district of the West Gulf Coastal Plain barite is found to be the cementing material in sands and gravels of the Lower Cretaceous Trinity Group. At Chamberlain Creek mining was performed by surface and subsurface techniques while the remaining mines were all open-pit. Total production of barite from Arkansas is 9 million tons (1939-1983) with 8 million tons coming from the Chamberlain Creek deposit. Reserves are estimated to be in the millions of tons. The Arkansas Geological Survey has all the information Milchem Corp. amassed on the Fancy Hill deposit in Montgomery County. Including are over 165 maps and figures detailing mine plans with core analysis. Refs: Hanor, J.S., and Baria, L.R., 1977, Controls on the distribution of barite deposits in Arkansas, in Stone, C.G., ed., Symposium on the geology of the Ouachita Mountains, v. 2: Arkansas Geological Commission Miscellaneous Publication 14, p. 42-47; Jones, T.A., 1948, Barite deposits in the Ouachita Mountains, Montgomery, Polk, and Pike Counties, Arkansas: US Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 4348, 15p.; Mitchell, A.W., 1984, Barite in the western Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, in Stone, C.G. and Haley, B.R., eds., Guidebook to the geology of the central and southern Ouachita Mountains Arkansas: Arkansas Geological Commission Guidebook 84-2, p. 124-131; Scull, B.J., 1958, Origin and occurrence of barite in Arkansas: Arkansas Geological and Conservation Commission Information Circular 18, 101p.; and Zimmerman, R.A., 1965, The origin of the Arkansas bedded barite deposits with special reference to the genetic value of sedimentary features in the ore: Ph.D. dissertation, Rolla, MO, University of Missouri, 367p.